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Le soulèvement du monde arabe doit s'accompagner du respect des droits des femmes - [IFE Italia]
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Le soulèvement du monde arabe doit s’accompagner du respect des droits des femmes

di Nadia Chaabane, Sérénade Chafik, Suzy Rojtman, Maya Surduts, féministes d’Égypte, de France, de Tunisie
mercoledì 9 marzo 2011

Le mobilitazioni nel mondo araba sappiano accompagnarsi al rispetto dei diritti delle donne.

Il mondo si muove, il mondo cambia. Realtà sociali che si credevano immutabili stanno scuotendo le nostre certezze. I dittatori corrotti e i loro clan sono caduti in Tunisia ed in Egitto. Il mondo arabo si infiamma. Nessun paese viene risparmiato , dallo Yemen al Marocco passando dal Bahrein e l’Algeria. Sollevamenti di popolo nascono anche laddove non ci si aspetterebbe. Il popolo libico per potersi liberare sta pagando un pesante contributo. Tutti questi popoli reclamano libertà democratiche, schiacciati dalla cappa di piombo del silenzio. Le loro rivendicazioni sono anche di natura sociale: si chiede lavoro, una diversa suddivisione della ricchezza, si denunciano la corruzione dei regimi e si esigono trasparenza e giustizia. In questa onda dilagante che scuote tanti Paesi le donne sono presenti a tutti i livelli della contestazione. In Tunisia hanno manifestato massicciamente il 29 gennaio per reclamare l’uguaglianza di diritti e il 19 febbraio è stata organizzata una prima marcia per la libertà e la laicità. In Algeria le associazioni femministe chiedono da diversi anni l’abrogazione de Codici di famiglia che rende le donne inferiori a vita e rivendicano leggi egualitarie. In altri Paesi, come in Egitto, benché la voce delle femministe sia al momento più tenue, molte donne rivendicano l’abrogazione del codice dello statu personale, la costruzione di uno Stato laico e la partecipazione delle donne nella Commissione per la riforma della Costituzione. Altrove la voce delle femministe est assolutamente inascoltata o inesistente. Queste sollevazioni popolari saranno in grado di consentire l’emergere di rivendicazioni femministe per l’eguaglianza? Non si può dire, a maggior ragione se si tiene in conto che in alcuni di questi Paesi il peso dei fondamentalisti mussulmani e dei conservatori che vogliono rinchiudere le donne come fossero in clausura è molto forte, cosa questa che fa temere il peggio. Hanno il loro peso anche la povertà e le guerre che ancora sono in corso in Irak e in Afghanistan. D’altro canto l’aspirazione alla democrazia, il sollevamento rivoluzionario contro i regimi autoritari e corrotti sono delle opportunità per rimettere in discussione tutto. Nessuno quindi può predire il futuro. Le femministe sanno che, anche nel passato, nessuna rivoluzione ha garantito i diritti delle donne. Anzi semmai è stato il contrario. E quindi quali diritti rivendicare? Le tunisine chiedono la separazione, per via costituzionale, fra la sfera politica e quella religiosa. Questa è una rivendicazione fondamentale. Così come reclamano che l’eguaglianza formale venga “scolpita nel marmo” della Costituzione. L’eguaglianza formale non è certo una garanzia sufficiente: le democrazie occidentali lo dimostrano ogni giorno. Ma essa è una “conditio sine qua non” e un prerequisito per la democrazia stessa. La miglior garanzia, però, resta la mobilitazione autonoma delle donne e degli uomini che sono disposti a sostenere le loro rivendicazioni. Per noi femministe i tempi che stiamo vivendo sono inediti. Inediti perché per la prima volta nella storia vediamo svolgersi davanti ai nostri occhi rivoluzioni che ricordano altri esempi storici: quelli delle rivoluzioni del XX secolo e quelli dei movimenti delle donne che hanno sconvolto una parte del mondo contemporaneo. Noi conosciamo i pericoli che corriamo ma siamo anche consapevoli delle opportunità che ci si aprono. Presto sarà l’8 marzo. Il 5 marzo abbiamo manifestato il 5 marzo a Parigi in solidarietà con le donne dei paesi arabi, dell’Iran e dell’Afghanistan per sostenere la loro lotta e i loro desideri. In questi paesi sta nascendo una speranza, non limitiamoci a passarci loro accanto. Nadia Chaabane, Sérénade Chafik, Suzy Rojtman, Maya Surduts, féministes d’Égypte, de France, de Tunisie

Traduzione: Nicoletta Pirotta

In originale: Le monde bouge, le monde change. Des sociétés que l’on croyait immuables sont en train de secouer nos certitudes. Des dictateurs corrompus et leurs clans sont tombés coup sur coup en Tunisie et en Égypte. Le monde arabe s’embrase. Aucun pays n’est épargné du Yémen au Maroc en passant par Bahrein et l’Algérie. Des soulèvements populaires se produisent là où on ne les attendait pas. Les Libyens payent un lourd tribut pour se libérer. Tous ces peuples réclament des libertés démocratiques, écrasés sous une chape de plomb de silence. Leurs revendications sont aussi sociales : ils demandent des emplois, une autre répartition des richesses, dénoncent la corruption des régimes et exigent la transparence et la justice. Dans cette vague déferlante qui secoue tant de pays, les femmes sont présentes à tous les niveaux de la contestation. En Tunisie, elles ont massivement manifesté le 29 janvier pour réclamer l’égalité des droits et le 19 février une première marche a été organisée pour la liberté et la laïcité. En Algérie, des associations féministes réclament depuis des années l’abrogation du Code de la famille, qui fait des femmes des mineures à vie, et revendiquent des lois égalitaires. Dans d’autres pays, comme en Égypte, même si la voix des féministes est à l’heure actuelle beaucoup plus ténue, des femmes revendiquent l’abrogation du code du statut personnel, la mise en place d’un État laïque et leur participation à la commission pour la réforme de la constitution. Ailleurs, la voix des féministes est carrément inaudible ou inexistante. Ces soulèvements populaires verront-ils l’émergence d’une revendication féministe d’égalité ? Nul ne peut le dire d’autant plus que dans certains de ces pays le poids des fondamentalistes musulmans et des conservateurs qui veulent cloîtrer les femmes dans des vêtements comme dans les maisons est d’importance et fait parfois craindre le pire. Pèsent aussi la pauvreté et les guerres comme en Irak et en Afghanistan. Mais l’aspiration à la démocratie, le bouillonnement révolutionnaire contre ces régimes autoritaires et corrompus sont des moments propices aux remises en cause en profondeur. Personne ne peut prédire l’avenir. Les féministes savent que par le passé aucune révolution victorieuse n’a garanti les droits des femmes. L’histoire a prouvé le contraire. Alors quelles garanties revendiquer ? Des Tunisiennes réclament la séparation constitutionnelle entre le politique et le religieux. Celle-ci est fondamentale. Elles réclament aussi que l’égalité formelle soit gravée dans le marbre de de la Constitution. Cette égalité formelle n’est certes pas une garantie suffisante : les démocraties occidentales le démontrent chaque jour. Mais c’est une condition sine qua non et un préalable pour toute démocratie. La meilleure des garanties reste la mobilisation des femmes elles-mêmes et des hommes qui soutiennent leurs revendications. Pour nous féministes les temps que nous vivons sont inédits. Inédits, car c’est la première fois dans l’histoire que nous voyons se dérouler des révolutions tout en ayant en mémoire des exemples historiques : ceux des révolutions du XXe siècle et ceux des mouvements de libération des femmes qui ont bousculé une partie du monde contemporain. Nous savons les dangers qui nous guettent mais nous savons aussi les opportunités que nous pouvons saisir. Bientôt le 8 mars, journée internationale de lutte pour les droits des femmes. A cette occasion, nous avons manifesté le 5 mars à Paris en solidarité avec les femmes des pays arabes, d’Iran et d’Afghanistan en soutien à leurs luttes et à leurs aspirations. De ces pays nait l’espoir, nous ne saurions passer à côté. Nadia Chaabane, Sérénade Chafik, Suzy Rojtman, Maya Surduts, féministes d’Égypte, de France, de Tunisie


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